The Oldest Engineering Institution of Pakistan             Ranked at 281 amongst World Engineering Universities            
 

B.Sc. Civil Engineering: Semester System w.e.f. 2010

Year 1

Semester 1

Semester 2

Course No.

S u b j e c t

Contact Hours

Credit Hours

Theory

Pract.

Theory

Pract.

CE-103

Construction Materials

3

3

3

1

CE-105

Civil Engineering Drawing

1

6

1

2

HU-120

English Communication Skills

0

3

0

1

MA-104

Mathematics-I

3

0

4

0

IS/Hu-101

Islamic & Pak Studies/ Ethics

3

0

3

0

 

Tutorial

0

2

0

0

 

Total

10

14

11

4

 

G. Total

24

15

Course No.

S u b j e c t

Contact Hours

Credit Hours

Theory

Pract.

Theory

Pract.

CE-101

Elementary Surveying

3

6

3

2

CE-102

Engineering Mechanics

3

3

3

1

EE-102

Applied Electricity

2

2

2

1

CE-150

Computer Programming

3

3

3

1

MA-105

Mathematics-II

3

0

3

0

 

Tutorial

0

1

0

0

 

Total

14

15

14

5

 

G. Total

29

19

Year 2

Semester 3

Semester 4

Course No.

S u b j e c t

Contact Hours

Credit Hours

Theory

Pract.

Theory

Pract.

CE-201

Surveying and GIS-RS Applications

3

6

3

2

CE-212

Mechanics of Materials

3

3

3

1

CE-231

Fluid Mechanics-I

3

3

3

1

MinE-270

Engineering Geology

2

2

2

1

MA-220

Mathematics-III

3

0

3

0

 

Tutorial

0

1

0

0

 

Total

14

15

14

05

 

G. Total

29

19

Course No.

S u b j e c t

Contact Hours

Credit Hours

Theory

Pract.

Theory

Pract.

CE-205

Civil Engineering Construction & Graphics

2

3

2

1

CE-206

Project & Contract Management

3

3

3

1

CE-211

Elementary Structural Analysis

3

0

3

0

CE-221

Geotechnical Engineering-I

3

3

3

1

MA-230

Numerical Analysis

3

0

3

0

IS/Hu-202

Islamic & Pak Studies/Ethics

3

0

3

0

CE-225

Social Sciences*

0

3

0

1

 

Tutorial

0

1

0

0

 

Total

17

13

17

4

 

G. Total

30

21

Year 3

Semester 5

Semester 6

Course No.

S u b j e c t

Contact Hours

Credit Hours

Theory

Pract.

Theory

Pract.

CE-306

Construction Management

2

3

2

1

CE-311

Structural Analysis

3

3

3

1

CE-313

Steel Structures

3

3

3

1

CE-321

Geotechnical Engineering-II

3

3

3

1

CE-332

Engineering Hydrology

3

3

3

1

 

Total

14

15

14

5

 

G. Total

29

19

Course
No.

S u b j e c t

Contact Hours

Credit Hours

Theory

Pract.

Theory

Pract

CE-312

Structural Mechanics

3

3

3

1

CE-314

Plain & Reinforced Concrete-I

3

3

3

1

CE-331

Fluid Mechanics-II

3

3

3

1

CE-341

Environmental Engineering-I

3

3

3

1

CE-342

Technical Writing & Presentation Skills

0

3

0

1

 

Tutorial

0

2

0

0

 

Total

12

17

12

5

 

G. Total

29

17

Year 4

Semester 7

Semester 8

Course No.

S u b j e c t

Contact Hours

Credit Hours

Theory

Pract.

Theory

Pract.

CE-411

Plain Reinforced Concrete-II

3

3

3

1

CE-421

Transportation Engineering

3

3

3

1

CE-441

Environmental Engineering-II

3

3

3

1

CE-424

Hydraulic Engineering

3

3

3

1

CE-499

Project

0

6

0

3

 

Total

12

18

12

7

 

G. Total

30

19

Course No.

S u b j e c t

Contact Hours

Credit Hours

Theory

Pract.

Theory

Pract

CE-401

Structural Engineering

3

3

3

1

CE-431

Irrigation Engineering

3

3

3

1

CE-422

Design of Structures

3

3

3

1

CE-423

Pavement & Foundation Engineering

3

3

3

1

CE-499

Project

0

6

0

3

 

Total

12

18

12

7

 

G. Total

30

19

 

 

Contact Hours

Credit Hours

Total- hours

Grand Total

230

148

378

 

 

Total Hours

% age

Total

378

-

Engineering

326

86

Mathematics

25

7

Humanities/Social Science

27

7

Checksum

100

DETAILS OF SUBJECTS FOR FIRST –SECOND SEMESTERS

CE-101 ELEMENTARY SURVEYING
Introduction to land surveying, definitions, branches and their application. Instruments used in reconnaissance.
Chain Surveying; Types of tapes, chains, methods of chain surveying
Leveling: Reduction of levels, temporary and permanent adjustments of levels, precise leveling.
Theodolite: Types, use, temporary and permanent adjustments. Traversing with compass and theodolite.
Tachometry: With staff and sub tense bar.
Plane Table Surveying: Parts and accessories, Methods of plane table survey, two and three points problems.
Contouring: Methods and applications.
Area and Volumes: Computation by various methods, cross section and L-section of roads, layout of buildings and structures.

Field and drawing office work based on above.

CE-102 ENGINEERING MECHANICS     
Basic concepts of space, time, mass, velocity, acceleration and force. Scalar and vector quantities.
Newton's laws of motion, law of gravitation. Units of measurements for space, time, mass and force. SI and FPS systems of units. 
Resultant and resolution of co-planer forces using parallelogram, triangle and polygon law and funicular polygon. Simple cases of resultant and resolution of forces in space.
Conditions of equilibrium of co-planar forces, analytical and graphical formulations. Free body concept, conditions of support and attachment to other bodies. Degree of restraint and static determinacy. Statically determinate problems especially of civil engineering importance.
Work, energy and power. Virtual work formulation of equilibrium of coplanar force. Potential energy, energy criterion for equilibrium, stability of equilibrium, application to simple cases.
Geometrical properties of plane areas, first moment of area, centroid, second moment of area, principal axes, polar second moment of area and radius of gyration.
Friction, Coulomb's theory of friction. Problems involving friction on flat and curved surfaces.

 

CE-103 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
Cements, Ceramics and Refractories: Manufacture, properties and applications of lime, cement, ceramics, bricks and asbestos.
Hydration of lime and cement, mortar and concrete, effect of various chemicals on cement and concrete, types and properties of polymer concrete and fiber reinforced concrete.
Plastics: manufacture of plastics, comparison of different types of plastics and their use in civil engineering.
Glass: Main types of glass, chemical and physical properties of glass, fiberglass manufacturing techniques and properties.
Wood: Different types of wood available in Pakistan, seasoning and preservation of wood, laminated materials, gluing and joining techniques. Elastic properties of Pakistani woods.
Paints and Varnishes: Composition and manufacture of oil paints, plastic emulsion paints, distempers, varnishes, lacquers and enamels, methods of application.
Metals: Composition, properties and manufacture of ferrous and non ferrous metals used in civil engineering. Hot rolled and cold worked steels, effect of various heat treatments on the properties of steel and its alloys, structural failures induced by corrosion. Brittle failures of steel. Methods of corrosion control.
Thermometry: Heat transfer, steady and unsteady states, conductivity and diffusivity, properties of thermal insulation and acoustical materials for use in buildings.
CE-105 CIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING
Introduction to the subject and drawing equipment.
Lettering and dimensioning, graphic symbols, free hand sketches and isometric views. Methods of sections including assembly sections.
Orthographic projection, orthogonal projections of simple solids in simple position, oblique and auxiliary planes.
Isometric and pictorial projections of solid figures, making of free hand sketches from solid objects and from orthographic projections. Intersection of surfaces. Development of surfaces.
Introduction to Civil Engineering drawing, preparation of plan, elevation and sections for simple buildings. Introduction to Computer Graphics.

CE –150 COMPUTER PROGRAMMING

Introduction to personal computer setup. Introduction to DOS and WINDOWS Operating system. Basics of Computer Programming. Program structure and flow charts.
BASIC Language:  Arithmetic operations and functions, input/output statements, decision making statements and loop functions and subroutines. Data and Data Files.
Fundamentals of Visual Basic Programming. Introduction to Visual Basic. Programming of simple, and elementary civil engineering problems.

CE-102 APPLIED ELECTRICITY
Nature of electricity, electric circuits and their analysis by different methods.
Electromagnetism, system of units. Basics of reading and understanding electrical circuits. Alternating currents, alternating current circuits, electrical resonance,
Machines using AC. principles of electronics and their applications to measuring instruments, principles of measuring physical quantities by electrical methods.

Introduction to single phase transformers, applications, improvements, introduction to alternator. Introduction to lasers and fiber optics their uses and converters. The induction motor.
Introduction to direct current machines and their working, Latest trends.
Principles of house and industrial wiring grounding with applications, methods and their relative advantages, circuit diagrams and load calculation.
Illumination of spaces.

MA-104 MATHEMATICS-1
Application of Derivative: Rate, speed and acceleration, tangents and normals, maxima and minima of a function of single variable.  Curvature and radius of curvature. Polar Curves.
Functions of Several Variables: Coordinates in space, partial differential coefficient, Partial differentiation of an implicit function, total differential. Sensitivity and error estimates. Liberalization, chain rules, maxima and minima of functions of two independent variables.
Vectors: Addition and scalar multiplication of vectors. Scalar and vector products. Triple products. Differentiation and integration of vectors. Algebra of matrices and determinants and their use in solving simultaneous equations, Eigen values and eigen- vectors.
Motion: Motion along a straight line with uniform acceleration, motion along a curved path. Tangential and normal components of acceleration. Simple harmonic .motion, projectiles. Momentum and conservation of work and energy.

MA-105 MATHEMATICS-II
Techniques of Integration: Application of integration in finding area, volume and surface area of a solid of revolutions, length of arc, centroid etc. Theorem of Pappus and Gladinus.
Hyperbolic functions. Catenaries.
       
Double Integration and its application to find volume, centroid and moment of inertia.
Differential Equations: Solution of various types of first order equations. Orthogonal trajectories, Application in physical problems. Linear differential equations of second order, Complementary function and particular integral. Method of undetermined coefficients. Variation of parameters. Simultaneous differential equations. Solution of differential equation in series.
Three Dimensional Analytical Geometry of 3-dimensions. Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates. Equation of plane. Direction cosines. Equations of straight line. Orthogonality.   Equation of sphere.
Multiple Integration: Volume, center of mass, moment of inertia.
MinE-170 ENGINEERING GEOLOGY
The fundamentals of general/structural geology, importance of geology for civil engineers, introduction to engineering geology. Engineering properties of geological materials and rocks and their correlation with civil engineering projects, classification of rock masses, discontinuities of rocks and determination of shear strength of rock discontinuity. Determination of elastic properties of rocks, wave propagation through rocks.
Subsurface Investigation: Drilling, sampling and in-situ testing of subsurface geological materials, collection of geophysical data, planning and supervision of geophysical investigations, Behavior of subsurface geological materials under static and dynamic loading, definition and importance of damping for the design of civil engineering structures, introduction to tectonic plates, causes of earthquake, determination of shear wave modulus, and construction of response spectrum.
Stability of Rock Slope: Various types of rock failures and factors affecting the stability of rock slopes, analysis and calculation of safety factors, causes of landslides and remedial measures.
Engineering Geology of Dams: Identification and determination of geological parameters required in dam design and selection of dam sites, case histories of dam sites in Pakistan,
Engineering Geology of Tunnels: Geological survey prior to tunneling, lining of tunnels and its section, selection of tunnel site and its requirements, case histories.
Ground Subsidence: Effect of alteration of fluid levels. Mines.
PRACTICAL WORK: Examination and interpretation of geological maps. Logging of rock core for engineering purposes. Testing of rocks for their elastic properties, identification of rocks and their physical properties.

DETAILS OF SUBJECTS FOR THIRD – FOURTH  SEMESTERS
CE-201: SURVEYING AND GIS-RS APPLICATIONS
Introduction to advanced surveying and its application, Triangulation, trilateration, field procedures and application. EDM. Strength of figure, computation and plotting.
Theory of Errors and Weights: Quality of observations, weighted observations, distribution and adjustment of errors. Most probable value.
Curves: Various types of curves with application: simple circular curve, compound curves, transition curves, vertical curve and reverse curves, Design and layout of curves.
Tunnel Surveying: Use of gyroscope.
Hydrographic Surveying: Horizontal and vertical controls, submarine surface contours. Discharge measurement, reservoir capacity calculation.
Field Astronomy: Solar and stellar observations for position and azimuth determination.
Photogrammetry: Introduction, definition and application of aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry.
Modern positioning systems, use of GPS,computation and plotting, use of computer and plotter.
CE-205 CIVIL ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION AND GRAPHICS
Site selection, orientation and setting out for civil engineering projects.
Masonry Construction: Types of stone, brick and block masonry. Bonds in brick masonry.
Dampness in buildings, causes and remedial measures.
Various types of floor finishes, interior and exterior finishes. Scaffolding and formwork, Expansion and construction joints, factors affecting their location.
Concrete Construction: Batching, mixing, transportation and compaction of concrete. Pre-cast concrete, concrete construction. Quality control in concrete construction.
Woodwork in building construction.
Defects in building construction. Principal defects, diagnosis, causes and remedial measures.
Stone crushers. Machines for cleaning and grading of aggregates. Concrete mixers, vibrators and pneumatic tools.  
Types of Civil Engineering drawing. Preparation of plans, elevations and sections. Working drawings of a residential building. Computer graphics.
Application of architectural planning and rendering in Civil Engineering projects.

CE-206 PROJECT AND CONTRACT MANAGEMENT
Introduction to Engineering Economics: Inflation, escalation, indexation, economic evaluation, financial planning, value, utility, depreciation, arbitration and litigation. Demand and supply analysis, theory of pricing, theory of production and laws of return,
Construction Specifications. Role of specifications on cost of project.
Contracts: Types and conditions of contracts, work contracts and tendering.
Estimating: Need for estimates, rough cost and detailed estimates. Preparation of bill of quantities. Scheduled and non scheduled rates. Analysis of rates, abstract of costs. Preparation of estimates from drawings. Use of proper planning. Introduction to critical path method.
Safety and Environmental management at construction sites.
Technical Report Writing: Qualities of a good report, main parts, scope and functions, Logical sequence, numbering system and use of suitable heading and subheadings, Formats of tile page, table of contents, bibliography, footnote.
Oral Presentation: Basic principles of good oral presentation.

CE-211 ELEMENTARY STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Introduction to Structures and Analysis. Types of structures, structural idealisation and loads. Redundancy and stability of structures.

Analysis of Determinate in Jointed Structures: by method of joints, method of sections, method of moments and shears and graphical method.
Analysis of Statically Determinate Rigid Jointed Plane Frames: Shear force, bending moment and axial force diagrams for these structures.
Temperature stresses in structures.
Moving Loads: Influence lines for reactions, shear force and bending moment in statically determinate beams and paneled girders, influence lines for member forces in pin jointed frames, Calculation of maximum stress function (reaction, shear, bending moment, axial force) in these structures.
Three Hinged Arches, Cables and Suspension Bridges: Basic considerations in analysis and design. Moving loads on three hinged arches and suspension bridges.
Deflection and Rotations: Castigliano’s second theorem. Rotation and deflection of beams, plane trusses and frames. Principle of virtual Work, unit load method, graphical method. Three moment equation for analysis of statically indeterminate beams.

CE-212 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Types of stresses and strains, stress-strain behavior of ductile and brittle materials. Statically determinate and indeterminate problems, compound bars. Temperature stresses.
Bending moment and shear force diagrams for determinate beams for general loading. Principle of superposition, relationship between load, shear force and bending moment.
Theory of simple bending, distribution of bending and shear stresses in beams of symmetrical sections.
Differential equation of beam deflection and deflection of beams using the double integration. Singular Functions moment area and conjugate beam methods. Strain energy due to direct loads, shear and bending. Castigliano's theorems and their application to find deflections and rotations.
Combined bending and axial stresses, columns, types of columns, stability of columns, Euler and other formulae for elastic critical load, eccentrically loaded short columns.

Torsion of solid and hollow circular sections. Strain energy due to torsion and impact loads.
CE-221 GEOTECNICAL ENGINEERING-1
Significance. Soil, rock and their types and formation. Physical properties of soil: water content, voids ratio, porosity, degree of saturation, specific gravity, unit weight and their determination, mass-volume relationships.
Soil Classification: Importance of classification tests. Atterberg's limits, grain size distribution; Stokes law, classification systems.
Geotechnical Investigation: Soil exploration, purpose and methods of soil exploration. Probing, test trenches and pits, auger boring, wash boring, rotary drilling, and geophysical methods, soil samplers, disturbed and undisturbed samples. Introduction to Geotechnical report writing.
Permeability and Seepage: Darcy's law, factors affecting permeability, laboratory and field determination of permeability, capillary and its effects. Seepage force. Introduction to flow net. Estimation of seepage quantity. Quick sand condition. Sand boiling Filters.
Compaction: Fundamentals, moisture density relationship, compaction standards, factors affecting compaction, field control and measurements of insitu density. Field compaction equipment.
Consolidation: Mechanics of consolidation, theory of one dimensional consolidation, assumptions and validity, oedometer test and graphical representation of data, compression index, co-efficient of compressibility, time factor, coefficient of volume change and degree of consolidation, primary and secondary consolidation. Normal and pre-consolidated soils.
CE-231 FLUID MECHANICS-1

Introduction: Fluid mechanics, hydrostatics, kinematics, hydrodynamics. Hydraulics. Solids and fluids, liquids and gases. Units and dimensions. Physical properties of fluids, specific weight, specific volume, specific gravity, surface tension, compressibility. Viscosity, units of viscosity, measurement of viscosity, Newton's equation of viscosity.

Fluid Statics: Pressure intensity and pressure head:  pressure specific weight relationship, absolute and gauge pressure, measurement of pressure, Piezo-meter, manometer, pressure transducers. Differential manometer and Borden gauge.
Fortes on submerged planes and curved surfaces and their applications, buoyancy and floatation. Equilibrium of floating and submerged bodies.
Fluid Kinematics: Steady and unsteady flow, laminar and turbulent flow, uniform and non-uniform flow. Pathline, streamlines and stream tubes. Velocity and discharge. Equation of continuity for compressible and incompressible fluids.
Hydrodynamics: Different forms of energy in a flowing liquid, head, Bernoulli's equation and its application, E.L.&H.G.L., free and forced vortex.
Flow Measurement: Orifices and mouthpieces, sharp -crested weirs and notches, pilot Lube and pilot-static tube, Velurimeter. Salt velocity method, color velocity method, Radioisotope methods.
Steady Flow through Pipes: Darcy-Weisbach equation for flow in pipes. Losses in pipe lines, hydraulic grade lines and energy lines. Pipes in series and parallel. Transmission of energy through pipes. Introduction to computer aided analysis of pipe networks.
Uniform Flow in Open Cannels: Chezy's and Manning's equations, Bazin's and Kutter's Most economical rectangular and trapezoidal section.

MA-220 MATHEMATICS-111

Statistics: Frequency distribution, histogram, polygon, ogive. Measures of dispersion; Mean, mode, median, standard deviation, variance, characteristics strength. Correlation, rank correlation, Lines of regression. Least square method. Probability. Theorems of addition and multiplication.
Laplace Transformation: Laplace transforms of elementary functions. Basic properties. Inverse transform. Application in solution of initial value problems. Convolution theorem. Unit step function. Transforms of periodic functions.
Fourier Series: Periodic functions. Even and odd functions. Fourier series of functions of period  2. Arbitrary period, half range series. Complex form of Fourier series.
Partial Differential Equations: Wave, heat and Laplace equations. Solution of partial differential equations by product method. D'Alembert's solution of wave equation. Laplacian in polar coordinates. Solutions of partial differential equation by Laplace transform. Application of Fourier series.

Complex Analysis: Algebra of complex numbers. Polar form. D'Moivre's theorem. Nth roots of a number. Complex functions. Complex exponential trigonometric and logarithmic functions. Complex function as a transformation. Analytic functions. Cauchy-Riemann Equations. Complex integration. Cauchy's fundamental theorem, Cauchy's integral formula. Contour integration Residual theorem. Integration of real integrals.

MA-230 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS
Computer Calculations: Binary arithmetic representation of numbers in computer, errors in arithmetic operations, errors in computational methods.
Solution of Non-linear Equations: Simple iteration. Bisection method, Newton's method, secant method, method of false position, comparison of these methods.
Finite Differences: Difference operations and tables, differences of polynomials, Newton's and Gauss interpolating techniques for equally spaced data, simple theorems on divided differences, Newton’s formulation for unequal intervals, Lagrange's formulation of interpolation, curve fittings by the method of least squares.
Numerical differentiation and integration with civil engineering applications.
Solution of Linear Simultaneous Equations: Gauss elimination method, Jacobi’s method. Gauss-Siedel method, sparse matrices, solution of ordinary differential equations, initial value problems, Euler and modified Euler methods, Runge-Kutta and Kutta-Merson methods.

Eigen-values and Eigen-vectors: Interactive and transformation methods, eigen-values of tri-diagonal matrix.
Solution of Polynomial Equations: Polynomial arithmetic, finding initial approximations and complete solution of polynomial regression analysis.

Technical Writing and Presentation Skills

Objectives

To enhance language skills and develop critical thinking

Course Contents

Presentation Skills

Essay Writing
Descriptive, narrative, discursive, argumentative

Academic Writing
How to write a research paper / term paper

How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style, content, language, form, clarity, consistency)

Technical Report Writing

Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building

Books Recommended

a). Essay writing and Academic Writing
                 1. Writing. Advanced by Ron White. Oxford supplementary skills. Third
                     Impression 1992. ISBN 0 19435407 3 (particularly suitable for discursive,
                     Descriptive, argumentative and report writing)
                
                 2. College Writing Skills by John Langan. McGraw Hill Higher education
                     2004
                 3. Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. Kirszner and Stephen
                     R. Mandell. St. Martin’s Press.
b). Presentation Skills
c). Reading:
                   The Mercury Reader. A custom Publications, Compiled by norther Illinois
                   University. General Editors: Janica Neulib; Kathleen Shine Cain; Stephen
                   Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. ( A reader which will give students exposure to
                   The best of twentieth century literature, without taxing the taste of engineering
                   Students)
               

DETAILS OF SUBJECTS FOR FIFTH – SIXTH  SEMESTERS

CE-306 CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

History of construction management. The nature and characteristics of the construction industry. General principles of construction management. Construction project life cycle. Organization structures. Construction contracts & their procurement.
Project Planning and Budgeting: Project monitoring and control. Introduction to construction productivity analysis; definition, factors affecting construction productivity analysis (On-site and Off-site).
Application of Engineering Economics Concepts: Interest and present worth calculations, comparison of alternatives, replacement, depreciation and depletion; tax, effect of inflation. Application of engineering economics in construction equipment management.
Use of software in construction management and planning. Application of ISO 9000 to construction management and planning. Total quality management.
CE-311 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Force Method: Methods of least work and consistent deformation, application to statically indeterminate beams, frames, grids, trusses and two hinged arches.
Displacement Method: Slope deflection method, moment distribution method, application to indeterminate beams and frames.                                                                                                                                                 
Column Analogy Method: Application to prismatic members. Stillness and carry over factors of straight members of variable moment of inertia. Analysis of portal frames with one axis of symmetry, without axis of symmetry. Analysis of gable frames, closed frames and portal frames.
Effect of axial force on stiffness and carryover factors and stability of simple frameworks.
ILD for Indeterminate Members: Clark Maxwell and Batty's theorems, influence lines for moment and reaction in propped cantilever, fixed ended and two and three span continuous beams. ILD for shear force and bending moment at any section in an indeterminate beam.
Introduction to Plastic Theory: Application to continuous beams and portal frames.

CE-312 STRUCTURAL MECHANICS

Analysis of Stress and Strain at a point due to combined effect of axial force, shear force, bending and twisting moment. Mohr's circle for stresses and strains, relationships between elastic constants.
Experimental Stress Analysis: Strain rosette solution.

Introduction to Theory of Elasticity: Stress tensor, plane stress and plane strain problems and formulation of stress function.
Theories of Yielding/Failure for ductile and brittle materials.
Biaxial Bending of symmetrical and unsymmetrical sections, shear stress distribution in thin walled open sections and shear center.
Thin, Thick and Compound Cylinders.
Columns; Stability of columns, conditions of equilibrium, eccentrically loaded columns, initially imperfect columns.
Introduction to bending and buckling of Plates.

CE-313PLAIN & REINFORCED CONCRETE-1
Plain Concrete: Constituent materials of concrete and their properties. Hydration of cement. Properties of fresh and hardened concrete and factors affecting them. Curing of concrete and its significance. Testing of concrete for various properties including physical tests, strength tests. Crushing or ultimate strain. Modulus of elasticity of concrete, types, tests, determination and significance. Design of normal concrete mixes, factors affecting the workability of the fresh and strength and durability of the hardened concrete. Alkali aggregate reaction, carbonation and sulfate attack. Additives and admixtures for concrete. Cracks in concrete.
Mechanics of Reinforced Concrete: Basics of composite action of steel and concrete. Stress-strain curves of steel and concrete. Actual, simplified and equivalent stress blocks. Behavior of reinforced concrete members including columns, beams and slabs at working and ultimate loads. Specifications, codes of practice and design loads. Analysis design and detailing of: Simply supported rectangular and T-beams by ultimate strength design method, simply supported and continuous one way and two way slabs. Reinforced concrete members for axial compression and tension. Tied and spiral columns. ACI Code provisions for design of columns. Shear and diagonal tension in concrete, design and detailing of flexural members for shear. Corner reinforcement in slabs. Assessment of crack width in flexural members, Introduction to alternate method of design with application.
Practical: Physical testing of constituent materials for concrete. Acceptance tests for cement. Tests on fresh and reinforced concrete for workability, compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity. Casting of different types of beams and columns and testing to study the effects of various factors. Detailing of designed elements.
CE-314 STEEL STRUCTURES

Introduction to steel as a structural material, hot rolled, cold formed and built up sections.

Objectives of designer and selection of design criteria. Introduction to various methods of design.

Fundamentals of Working Stress Method: Strength analysis and design of simple tension, compression and flexural members.                                                                                             

LRFD Method of Design: Factor of safety, loads and load combination. Concept of load and resistance factors, plastic design and limits on design. Analysis and design of tension members, calculation of net area, Analysis and design of columns, lacing and slay plates. Residual stresses, local and overall stability, Euler's buckling load in columns. Analysis and design of beams. Compact, non-compact and slender sections, lateral torsional buckling. Beam-column and axial-flexure interaction, second order effects, moment magnification. Plate girder proportioning and stiffener design including drawings. Welded, bolted and riveted truss connections, brackets, moment and shear connections. Design and drawing of a truss, purlin, roof sheet, cud bearing plate. Uplift of truss due to wind.

CE-321 GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING-11

Shear Strength: Concept, parameters, Coulomb's law, shear strength of cohesive and non-cohesive soils. Factors affecting shear strength of soil and its applications in engineering. Laboratory and field tests for determination of shear strength.

Stress Distribution in Soils: Geo-static stresses, Total stress and pore pressure, Effective stress, Vertical stresses induced due to structural loads: Westergaurd and Boussinesq's theories. Pressure bulb, Stress distribution diagrams on horizontal and vertical planes. Stress at a point outside the loaded area, Newmark's influence charts, Fadum, Steinnbrenner charts.

Settlement Analysis: Definition, total settlement, differential settlement, angular distortion, consolidation settlement, elastic or immediate settlement. Settlement calculations, primary and secondary consolidation settlements, immediate settlement of cohesive and non-cohesive soils. Causes of settlements and methods of controlling settlement. Limits of allowable, total and differential settlement.

Earth Pressures: Definition, pressure at rest, active and passive earth pressures. Coulomb's and  Rankine's theories. Trial wedge and Culmann's method. Earth pressure diagrams for different configurations loading.

Bearing Capacity of Soils: Definition of ultimate and safe bearing capacities, allowable bearing capacity, gross and net bearing capacities, Methods of obtaining bearing capacity:

*   Presumptive values from codes; merits and demerits,
*   From plate toad test,         
*   Bearing capacity theories,
*   Bearing capacity from SPT and CPT data.

Introduction to Foundation Engineering:

Slope Stability: Types of slopes, Factors affecting stability and remedies. Types of failure Methods of analysis; Swedish circular method, Taylor's slope stability number and Bishop's
Methods.

Earth and Rock Fill Dams: Definition of an earth dam, types of earth and rock fill dams,Components of an earth dam and their functions. General design considerations and typical cross-sections.
                                                                                                                             
Introduction to Soil Improvement                                                                                                      

CE-331 FLUID MECHANICS-II

Fluid Flow in Pipes: Reynold's number and its significance. Instability of viscous flow, viscous flow through circular pipes. Turbulent flow through circular pipes, semi empirical theories of turbulence, velocity profile in turbulent flow, pipe roughness, Nikurades's experiments, Moody's diagram, branching pipes.

Dimensional Analysis: Reyleigh's method, Buckingham's Pl-theorem and its application.

Hydro-dynamics: Ideal and real fluids, differential equation of continuity, rotational and irrational flow, stream function and velocity potential function, circulation and vorticity, orthogonality of steam lines and eqipotential lines, brief description of flow fields, flow net and its limitations, different methods of drawing a flow net.
Forces on Immersed Bodies: Development of boundary layer on immersed bodies, elementary theory of surface drag and form drag, simple lift and drag equations and their applications to simple engineering problems, separation of boundary layer.

Forces on Vanes and Turbo machinery: Impulse momentum equation and its application, forces on moving flat and curved vanes, similarity laws and factors for turbo machines.

Types of Turbine:  Impulse turbine, construction, features and operations, specific speed. Reaction turbine, types, construction, features and operation. Specific speed, cavitations, draft tube. Governing of turbines.

Pumps: Centrifugal pumps, classification, construction features and operations Reciprocating pumps; single, and double acting pumps, indicator diagram, acceleration head, maximum suction head, maximum suction lift and use of air vessels.

CE-332 ENGINEERING HYDROLOGY

Introduction: Hydrology, hydrologic cycle and the hydrologic equation, practical uses of hydrology, importance of hydrology.

Meteorology: The atmosphere and its composition, relative humidity, dew point and their measurement devices. Saturation deficit. Solar radiation as a source of heat, adiabatic changes and the lapse rate, air temperature, seasonal and diurnal variation of air temperature. The general circulation of wind system, the monsoons and western disturbances. Measurement of air temperature, relative humidity, radiation, sunshine and atmospheric pressure.

Precipitation: Types of precipitation, factors necessary for the formation of precipitation, measurement of precipitation, interpretation of precipitation data.

Evaporation and Transpiration:  Factors affecting evaporation, measurement of evaporation, evapo-transpiration.

Stream Flow: Water stage and its measurement, selection of site for stage record, selection of control and metering section, methods of measurement of stream flow, interpretation of stream flow data.
Runoff: Factors affecting runoff, estimating the volume of storm runoff.

Hydrographs: Characteristic of Hydrograph, components of a hydrograph, hydrograph separation, estimating the volume of direct runoff, introduction to unit hydrograph concept, S-curve, Application of probability in determining maxima/minima of discharge. Types of histogram and distribution.

Stream Flow Routing Introduction to flood frequency and duration analysis. Reservoir routing, channel routing.

Ground Water Flow: Introduction, sources and discharge of ground water. Water table and artesian aquifer. The Theis formula and its application to aquifer tests. Reservoir sedimentation. Factors controlling erosion, sediment rating curves. Sediment yield of a catchment, sedimentation in reservoirs.

CE-341 ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-1

Introduction to Environmental Engineering. Sources of environmental pollution-municipal, industrial and agricultural. Pollution of water, air and land, and its effects on plants, animals and man. Solid waste management. Air pollution sources and control, Noise pollution: sources, effects and controls.

Water Quality Criteria and Standard: Water quality regulations, measurement of waterquality. Quality of drinking water and its importance to human health. Water borne diseases and their control.

Estimation of Water Consumption for Communities. Selection of sources of water to meet community demand. Environmental and technical considerations for site selection. Intake structures. Layout and design of water transmission and distribution networks.

Principles of Process Engineering: Material balance relationships. Reactor theory and process design.

Water Treatment: Theory, principles and design of various treatment processes including sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation, filtration and disinfections.

 

DETAILS OF SUBJECTS FOR SEVENTH – EIGHTH  SEMESTERS

CE-411 DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

           
Structural systems for buildings. Integration of analysis, design and codes of practice.
           
Structural design and detailing of One/two storied houses, cantilever and counter fort retaining walls, multistoried RC and steel framed buildings for residential, commercial and industrial use, liquid retaining structures.

Review of design of a structure.

Introduction to computer aided analysis, design and detailing of structures.

CE-412 STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING

 

Prestressed Concrete: Principles, techniques and types, tendon profiles etc. Losses of prestress, Analysis of Prestressed concrete for service load, cracking load and ultimate strength. Design and detailing of simply supported post-and pre-tensioned beams.

Bridge Engineering: Site selection for a bridge, types and structural forms of bridges, Construction methods. Vehicle load transfer to slab and stringers. Design and detailing of simple RC deck and girder bridges.

Matrix Methods of Analysis:  Virtual force principle and flexibility method, flexibility of bar, beam and general flexural elements, analysis of 2D framed structures with temperature, support settlement and lack of fit. Virtual displacement principle and displacement method, element stiffness matrix for bar, beam and plane frame element, coordinate transformation. Compatibility and equilibrium. Assembly of structure stiffness matrix. Analysis by stiffness method of 2D trusses, beams and frames including temperature effects, lack of fit and settlement of supports. Reliability of computer results. Computer applications of above using interactive computer programs. Analysis by stiffness method of 2D-Reliability of computer results. Computer applications of above using interactive computer programs.

Introduction to Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering: Vibration of SDOF lumped mass systems, free and forced vibration with and without viscous damping. Natural vibration of SDOF systems. Response of SDOF systems: to harmonic excitation, to specific forms of excitation of ideal step, rectangular, pulse and ramp forces. Unit impulse response. Vibration of MDOF systems with lumped mass. Hamilton’s principle, modal frequency and mode shapes Computer applications of above. Introduction to basic terminology in EQ engineering. Form of structures for EQ resistance. Ductility demand, damping etc. Seismic zoning of Pakistan Equivalent lateral force analysis. Detailing of RC structures for EQ resistance.

CE-413 PLAIN AND REINFORCED CONCRETE-II

Introduction to limit states. Safety and serviceability provision.

Basics of bond, development length, curtailment and splicing of bars and AC1 Code provisions
Analysis, design and detailing of continuous rectangular and T-beams.

Design and detailing of one way continuous slabs, two way continuous edge supported slabs by coefficient and direct design methods. Design of column supported slabs by direct design method.

Analysis, design and detailing of eccentrically loaded columns. Introduction to biaxial bending and design of slender columns. Shear Walls.

Design of isolated footings for axially and eccentrically loaded columns. Design of combined and strap footings.

Design of staircases.

Testing of structures in service. Load testing and non-destructive testing.

Strengthening, repair and rehabilitation of existing structures.

CE-421 PAVEMENT AND FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

 

Types of pavement, wheel loads, equivalent single wheel load, repetition and impact factors, load distribution characteristics, highway and airport pavements comparison. Design considerations. Methods of design of pavements, group index, CBR and Westergaurd methods. Construction and maintenance. Pavement evaluation and rehabilitation.

Definition, purpose and types, general requirements of foundations, depth of footings, selection of foundation types. Geotechnical design of isolated, combined, mat and strap foundations. Differential settlements and cracks, proportioning of footings for given settlement or equal settlements. De-watering for foundation construction. Introduction to deep foundations. Types of piles, load carrying capacity of piles. Group action, negative skin friction, pile load test. Foundation construction.

CE-422 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING

 

Highway Engineering: Elements of typical cross section of road, types of cross sections. Design speed, lane capacity. Capacity reducing factors. Horizontal and vertical curves, grade line, super elevation, transition curve, curve widening, sight distance requirements. Principles of intersection design for at grade and grade separated intersections. Channelization. Highway construction materials, their properties and tests. Characteristics of drivers, vehicles and roadways, traffic surveys, traffic controlling devices, highway illumination, parking and accident studies.

Runway Engineering:           Airport requirements site selection. Airport classification, aircraft characteristics, runway length and runway configuration. Runway lighting, airport drainage system.

Railways: Elements of a track, types of gauges. Types of rail sections, rail joints creep and wear of rails. Fish plate, bearing plates and checkrails. Types of sleepers, their merits and demerits, sleeper density, spacing and stiffness of track. Types of ballast, requirements for good ballast, Renewal of a ballast, formation of single and double track formation failures. Selection of site for a railway station, layout of stations and yards, points and crossing, various layouts, signaling and inter locking. Modern methods for construction of tracks, maintenance, tools and organization.

CE-431 IRRIGATION ENGINEERING

 

Introduction: Definition and types of irrigation. Merits and demerits of irrigation, Indus basin irrigation system.

Water Resources:  Planning and development of water resources projects. Water resources in Pakistan.

Canal Irrigation: Elementary concept about canal head works, selection of their site and layout, weirs and barrages, various components and functions. Measures adopted to control silt entry into canals, silt ejectors and silt excluders. Design of weirs on permeable foundations, sheet piles and well foundations, cut off walls. Design of irrigation channels, Kennedy’s and Lacey’s theories. Rational methods for design of irrigation channels. Comparison of various methods. Computer Aided design of irrigation channels.

Irrigation Works: Canal head regulators, falls, meter flumes, canal outlets. Cross drainage works: types and functions. Canal lining: advantages and types. Maintenance of irrigation canals.

Irrigated Agriculture:             Water requirements of crops, duty of irrigation water. Delta of crops, consumptive use, estimation of consumptive use, methods used for assessment of irrigation water. Irrigation methods and practices. Management of irrigation systems, various approaches, participatory irrigation management.

Water logging and salinity: Definition, field capacity, wilting point, hygroscopic moisture etc. Causes and effects of water logging, reclamation of water logged soils. Drains and tube wells. Causes and effects of salinity and alkalinity of lands in Pakistan. Reclamation methods. Drainage network in irrigated areas.

CE-432 HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING

 

Steady flow in open channels: Specific energy and critical depth. Surface profiles and back water curves in channels of uniform sections. Hydraulic jump and its practical applications. Flow over humps and through constrictions.

Critical depth meters, broad crested weirs and venturi flume.

Unsteady Flow: Discharge through orifices and over weirs under varying heads. Unsteady flow through pipelines, water hammer. Instantaneous and slow closure of valves. Surges in open channels.

Dams: Types of storage dams, forces on dams, design of gravity dams, Reservoir engineering, regulation of storage reservoirs.

Hydraulic Similitude: Similitude in hydraulic model testing. Similitude requirements; geometric, kinematics and dynamic similarities. Various dimensionless numbers and their significance Physical models, techniques and analysis. Introduction to numerical models.

Sediment Transport in Open Channels: Properties of individual particles, fall velocity Movement of bed and suspended load. Collection and analysis of field data, methods for estimation of sediment transport capacity of channels.

Hydro Power Engineering: Selection of hydropower sites. Components and layout of waterpower scheme.

Introduction to computational hydraulics.

CE-441 ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-II

 

Sources of Wastewater: municipal and industrial Estimation of sanitary sewage and storm water quantities. Hydraulics of sewers and design of sewerage system. Sewage pumping.

Characteristics of municipal and industrial wastewaters.

Wastewater treatment: purpose, principles and design of various waster treatment processes including screens, grit chamber, sedimentation tanks, activated sludge process, trickling filters, waster stabilization ponds and aerated lagoons. Sludge digestion and disposal. Solids mass balance.

Low cost sanitation options for rural areas and small communities. Disposal of wastewater on land water bodies. Waster assimilative capacity of streams. Use of treated effluents for irrigation.

Control and management of industrial wastewater

National Environmental Quality Standards. Introduction to environmental impact assessment Evaluation of environmental impacts.

CE-499 PROJECT

The project shall consist of a Standard
Report of design, investigation or literature survey of any problem in Civil Engineering.